Square is a large city
square in the center of Beijing,
named after the Tiananmen
Gate (Gate of Heavenly Peace) located to its North, separating it
from the Forbidden City.
Tiananmen Square is the third largest
city square in the world (440,000 m² - 880m by
500m or 109 acres
- 960 by 550 yd). It has great cultural significance as it was the
site of several important
events in Chinese history.
China, the square is best known in recent memory as the focal point
of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989,
a pro-democracy movement which ended on 4 June 1989 with the
declaration of martial law in Beijing by the government and the
death of several hundred or possibly thousands of civilians.
Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty
to the end of the Qing
Dynasty. It is located in the middle of Beijing,
China, and now houses the Palace Museum. For almost 500 years, it
served as the home of emperors
and their households, as well as the ceremonial and political center
of Chinese government.
in 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 buildings and covers
720,000 m2 (7,800,000 sq ft). The palace complex
exemplifies traditional Chinese
palatial architecture, and has influenced cultural and
architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden
City was declared a World
Heritage Site in 1987, and is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved
ancient wooden structures in the world.
1925, the Forbidden City has been under the charge of the Palace
Museum, whose extensive collection of artwork and artifacts were
built upon the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Part of the museum's former collection is now located in the National
Palace Museum in Taipei. Both museums descend from the same
institution, but were split after the Chinese Civil War.
Summer Palace is a palace in Beijing,
The Summer Palace is mainly dominated by Longevity Hill and the Kunming Lake.
It covers an expanse of 2.9 square kilometers, three quarters of
which is water.
Hill is about 60 meters (200 feet) high and houses many
buildings positioned in sequence. The front hill is rich with
splendid halls and pavilions, while the back hill, in sharp
contrast, is quiet with natural beauty.
central Kunming Lake covering 2.2 square kilometers was entirely man
made and the excavated soil was used to build Longevity Hill. In the
Summer Palace, one finds a variety of palaces, gardens, and other
classical-style architectural structures.
December 1998, UNESCO
included the Summer Palace on its World
Heritage List. It declared the Summer Palace "a
masterpiece of Chinese landscape garden design. The natural
landscape of hills and open water is combined with artificial
features such as pavilions, halls, palaces, temples and bridges to
form a harmonious ensemble of outstanding aesthetic value." It
is a popular tourist destination but also serves as a recreational
Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications
made of stone, brick, tamped
earth, wood, and other materials, generally
built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern
borders of China in part to protect the Chinese Empire or
its prototypical states against intrusions by various nomadic groups
or military incursions by various warlike peoples or forces. Several
walls were being built as early as the 7th century BC; these, later
joined together and made bigger, stronger, and unified are now
collectively referred to as the Great Wall. Especially famous is the
wall built between 220–206 BC by the first Emperor
of China, Qin Shi Huang.
Little of that wall remains. Since then, the Great Wall has on and
off been rebuilt, maintained, and enhanced; the majority of the
existing wall was reconstructed during the Ming Dynasty.
purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing
the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road,
regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration
and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the
Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers, troop
barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the
means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall
also served as a transportation corridor.
Great Wall stretches from Shanhaiguan
in the east, to Lop
Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly
delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia.
A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies,
has concluded that the Ming walls measure 8,850 km (5,500 mi).
This is made up of 6,259 km (3,889 mi) sections of actual
wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and 2,232 km (1,387 mi)
of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. Another
archaeological survey found that the entire wall with all of its
branches measure out to be 21,196 km (13,171 mi).
National Stadium, officially the National Stadium, also known as the
Bird's Nest (Niǎocháo), is a stadium
in Beijing, China. The stadium was designed for use throughout the 2008
Summer Olympics and Paralympics.
at the Olympic
Green, the stadium cost US$423 million.
The design was awarded to a submission from the Swiss architecture
& de Meuron in April 2003 after a bidding process
that included 13 final submissions. The design, which originated
from the study of Chinese
ceramics, implemented steel beams in order to hide
supports for the retractable roof; giving the stadium the appearance
of a bird's nest.
Leading Chinese artist Ai
Weiwei was the artistic consultant on the
project. The retractable roof was later removed from the design
after inspiring the stadium's most recognizable aspect. Ground was
broken on 24 December 2003 and the stadium officially opened on 28
June 2008. A shopping mall and a hotel are planned to be constructed
to increase use of the stadium, which has had trouble attracting
and otherwise, after the Olympics.
National Aquatics Center
Beijing National Aquatics Center, also officially known as the
National Aquatics Center, and colloquially known as the Water Cube,
is an aquatics center that was built alongside Beijing
National Stadium in the Olympic Green
for the swimming competitions of the 2008 Summer Olympics.
Despite its nickname, the building is not an actual cube, but a cuboid (a rectangular box). Ground was broken on
December 24, 2003, and the Center was completed and handed over for
use on January 28, 2008. Swimmers at the Water Cube broke 25 world records during the
the Olympics, the building underwent a 200 million Yuan revamp
to turn half of its interior into a water park. The building
officially reopened on August 8, 2010.
Temple of Heaven
of Heaven, literally the Altar of Heaven is a complex of
religious buildings situated in the southeastern part of central Beijing.
The complex was visited by the Emperors of
the Ming and Qing dynasties
for annual ceremonies of prayer to Heaven for good harvest. It has been
regarded as a Taoist temple,although
worship, especially by the reigning monarch of
the day, pre-dates Taoism.
temple complex was constructed from 1406 to 1420 during the reign of
the Yongle Emperor,
who was also responsible for the construction of the Forbidden City in
Beijing. The complex was extended and renamed Temple of Heaven during
the reign of the Jiajing Emperor in
the 16th century. The Jiajing Emperor also built three other
prominent temples in Beijing, the Temple
of Sun in the east, the Temple of Earth in
the north, and the Temple
of Moon in the west . The Temple of Heaven
was renovated in the 18th century under the Qianlong Emperor.
Due to the deterioration of state budget, this became the last
large-scale renovation of the temple complex in the imperial time.
temple was occupied by the Anglo-French Alliance during the Second Opium War.
In 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion,
Nation Alliance occupied the temple complex and
turned it into the force's temporary command in Beijing, which
lasted for one year. The occupation desecrated the temple and
resulted in serious damage to the building complex and the garden.
Robberies of temple artifacts by the Alliance were also reported.
With the downfall of the Qing, the temple complex was left
unmanaged. The neglect of the temple complex led to the collapse of
several halls in the following years.
Shikai, then President of the Republic of China,
performed a Ming prayer ceremony at the temple, as part of an effort
to have himself declared Emperor of China. In 1918 the temple was
turned into a park and for the first time open to the public.
Temple of Heaven was inscribed as a UNESCO World
Heritage Site in 1998 and was described as "a
masterpiece of architecture and landscape design which simply and
graphically illustrates a cosmogony of great importance for the
evolution of one of the world’s great civilizations..." as
the "symbolic layout and design of the Temple of Heaven had a
profound influence on architecture and planning in the Far East over
surroundings of the Temple of Heaven are now a very popular park for
The Terra Cotta Museum
Terra Cotta Army or the "Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses",
is a collection of terracotta
sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang,
the first Emperor
of China. It is a form of funerary art
buried with the emperor in 210–209 BC and whose purpose was to
protect the emperor in his afterlife.
figures, dating from around the late third century BC, were
discovered in 1974 by some local farmers in Lintong District,
Shaanxi province. The figures vary in height according to their
roles, with the tallest being the generals. The figures include
and horses. Current estimates are that in the three pits containing
the Terracotta Army there were over 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots
with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which are
still buried in the pits nearby Qin Shi Huang's mausoleum.
Other terracotta non-military figures were also found in other pits
and they include officials, acrobats, strongmen and musicians.
Shanxi Provincial Museum
History Museum, which is located to the northwest of the Giant
Wild Goose Pagoda in the ancient city Xi'an,
in the Shaanxi
province of China,
is one of the first huge state museums with modern facilities in
China. The museum houses over 300,000 items, including murals,
paintings, pottery, coins, as well as bronze, gold, and silver
objects. The modern museum was built between 1983 and 2001 and its
appearance recalls the architectural style of the Tang Dynasty.
Big wild Goose Pagoda
Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda is a Buddhist pagoda
located in southern Xi'an,
It was built in 652 during the Tang Dynasty
and originally had five stories, although the structure was rebuilt
in 704 during the reign of Empress Wu Zetian
and its exterior brick facade was renovated during the Ming Dynasty.
One of the pagoda's many functions was to hold sutras and figurines
of the Buddha
that were brought to China from India by the Buddhist
translator and traveler Xuanzang.
The Ancient City Wall
fortifications of Xi'an
is an ancient capital of China,
represent one of the oldest and best preserved Chinese city walls.
Construction of the first city wall of Chang'an
began in 194 BCE and lasted for four years. That wall measured 25.7
kilometers (16.0 mi) in length, 12–16 meters (39–52 ft)
in thickness at the base. The area within the wall was c. 36 square kilometers (14 sq mi).
The existing wall was started by the Ming Dynasty
in 1370. It encircles a much smaller city of 14 square kilometers
(5.4 sq mi). The wall measures 13.7 kilometers (8.5 mi)
in circumference, 12 meters (39 ft) in height, and 15–18
meters (49–59 ft) in thickness at the base.
Grottoes are located in the south of Luoyang City. They are between
Mount Xiang and Mount Longmen and face Yi River. Longmen Grottoes, Yungang
Caves and Mogao
regarded as the three most famous treasure houses of stone
inscriptions in China.
The grottoes were started around the year
493 when Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534) moved
the capital to Luoyang and were continuously built during the 400
years until the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127). The scenery
measures 1,000 metres (about 1,094 yards) from north to south where
there are over 2,300 holes and niches, 2,800 steles, 40 dagobas,
1,300 caves and 100,000 statues. Most of them are the works of
the Northern Wei Dynasty and the flourishing age of the Tang Dynasty
(618-907). Lots of historical materials concerning art, music,
religion, calligraphy, medicine, costume and architecture are kept
in Longmen Grottoes.
White Horse Temple is located 12 kilometers away from the east of
Luoyang City, Henan Province.
White Horse Temple enjoys the reputation of the No.1 Ancient Temple
of China. It lies on the south of Mangshan Mountain, and faces the
Luohe River in the south. The construction of the temple started in
the 11th year (68) during the Yongping reign of Emperor Mingdi in
the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220). The White Horse Temple has a
history of over 1900 years. It is the first temple built since
Buddhism spread to China in the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD). According
to historical records, Emperor Mingdi of the Eastern Han Dynasty
dreamed of a golden man flying above the courtyard. After he woke
up, the emperor sent Cai Yin and Qin Jing as envoys to western
regions to invite Buddha and learn Buddhism. The two envoys
underwent much hardship and met two eminent Indian dignitaries She
Moteng and Zhu Falan on the way. Cai Yin and Qin Jing came back to
Luoyang City with the two monks, and a white horse carrying the
sutras. Emperor Mingdi ordered the construction of the temple to the
north of the imperial road outside the Xiyong Gate of Luoyang City.
The White Horse Temple, built after the style of Indian temples, was
the place for She Moteng and Zhu Falan to translate Buddhist sutras
and write sermons. In order to memorize the white horse for its
carrying back of the sutras, the temple was named the White Horse
White Horse Temple has undergone many repairs and renovations in all
previous dynasties. The present appearance is much different from
its original one. What we see today was restored during the Ming
Dynasty (1368-1644) and the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), with an area
of 34,000 square meters. Facing south, the main buildings of the
temple stand on or along the central axis, including the Temple
Gate, the Heavenly King Hall, the Great Buddha Hall, the Main Hall,
the Jieyin Hall, and the Pilu Pavilion, etc. Beside those main
buildings are the Reception Chamber, the Cloud-water Chamber, the
Ancestors Chamber, the Guests Chamber, the Buddhist Chamber, and the
Abbot Courtyard and so on. The huge White Horse Temple has over 100
Temple, in the region of Song Mountain, Dengfeng City, Henan
Province, is reputed to be 'the Number One Temple under Heaven'.
Included on UNESCO's World Cultural & Natural Heritage List in
2010, it is the cradle of the Chinese Zen Buddhism and the Shaolin
Martial Arts such as Shaolin Cudgel. One can see wild flowers and
pines on the mountain. With birds singing and a brook spattering, a
beautiful scene full of life and vitality is revealed to the
Temple embraces many exciting attractions, such as the Hall of
Heavenly Kings (Tianwangdian), the Mahavira Hall (Daxiongbaodian),
the Pagoda Forest, the Dharma Cave and the Martial Art Training
Center. Visitors may follow the virtual guide about the Shaolin
Bund is a waterfront area in central Shanghai.
The area centers on a section of Zhongshan Road (East-1 Zhongshan
Road) within the former Shanghai International Settlement,
which runs along the western bank of the Huangpu River,
in the eastern part of Huangpu
District. The Bund usually refers to the buildings
and wharves on this section of the road, as well as some adjacent
areas. It is one of the most famous tourist destinations in
Shanghai. Building heights are restricted in this area.
Cheng Huang Miao
City God Temple or Chenghuang Miao is a temple located in Shanghai,
China, within the old walled city. Today the
"City God Temple" not only refers to the large temple
complex, but also the traditional district of commerce in the city,
surrounding the temple. There are over a hundred stores and shops in
this area, and most of these store buildings are nearly a century
old. The temple connects to the Yuyuan Garden,
another landmark of the old city.
temple is colloquially known in Shanghai as the "Old City God
Temple", in reference to a later "New City God
Temple", which no longer exists.
Garden or Yuyuan Garden is an extensive Chinese garden
located beside the City
God Temple in the northeast of the Old
City of Shanghai,
China. It abuts the Yuyuan
Tourist Mart and is accessible from the Shanghai Metro's
centerpiece is the Exquisite Jade Rock (Yù Línglóng), a porous
3.3-m, 5-ton boulder. Rumours about its origin include the story
that it was meant for the imperial palace
but was salvaged after the boat sank off Shanghai.
museum was founded in 1952 and was first open to the public in the
former Shanghai Racecourse club house, now at 325 West Nanjing
Road. In 1959 the museum moved into the former
Zhonghui Building at 16 South Henan Road, which previously housed
insurance companies and bank offices. In 1992, the Shanghai
municipal government allocated a piece of land on People's Square to
the museum as its new site.
of the current building started in August 1993. It was inaugurated
on October 12, 1996. It is 29.5 meters high with five floors,
covering a total area of 39,200 m². Designed by local architect
Xing Tonghe, the new museum building is designed in the shape of an
ancient bronze cooking vessel called a ding.
It is said that the inspiration for the design was specifically
provided by the Da Ke Ding, now on exhibit in the museum. The
building has a round top and a square base, symbolizing the ancient
Chinese perception of the world as "round sky, square
is the performance of extraordinary feats of balance,
coordination. It can be found in many of the performing arts
as well as in many sports.
Acrobatics is most often associated with activities that make
extensive use of gymnastic elements, such as acro dance,
circus, and gymnastics,
but many other athletic activities — such as ballet and diving — may also employ acrobatics. Although
acrobatics is most commonly associated with human body performance,
it may also apply to other types of performance, such as aerobatics.